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Choices produces videos featuring top experts—professors, policymakers, journalists, activists, and artists—answering questions that complement the readings and lessons.

Supplemental Materials

Supplemental Materials include videos, maps, and graphic organizers to accompany the printed unit, online lessons, links to additional online resources from the Choices Program, links to resources on other sites, and a list of recommended print resources.


Confronting Genocide: Never Again?

Seventh edition. June 2016.


The history of genocide elicits horror and revulsion throughout the world. Yet both the international community and the United States have struggled to respond to this recurring problem. What are the root causes of genocide? Why has the world failed to keep the promise of "never again"? How do individuals and communities respond to and recover from genocide? What role should the United States play?

Confronting Genocide: Never Again? traces the evolution of the international community's response to genocide and examines how the United States has responded to six cases of genocide. The evaluation of multiple perspectives, informed debate, and problem-solving strategies that are encouraged in this curriculum enable students to develop their own recommendations for U.S. policy.


The readings trace the development of the United Nations and the Genocide Convention and then examine six case studies: the Armenian Genocide, the Holocaust, the Cambodian Genocide, the Bosnian Genocide, the Rwandan Genocide, and the genocide in Sudan.

The Choices Role Play

This activity is a simulation in which students examine four options for U.S. policy. Each option has a different perspective on the U.S. response to genocide. The role play is designed to help students clarify their thoughts and, ultimately, articulate their own views on the future of U.S. policy on genocide.


The Genocide Convention: Five Case Studies
Students analyze the Genocide Convention and consider the challenges of defining "genocide." Students then apply the standards of the Genocide Convention to five historical cases: The Trail of Tears, Colonial Congo, the Ukrainian Famine,Tibet, and the Conquest of the Desert in Argentina.

Genocide Reported in the Media
By assessing New York Times coverage of Armenian and Darfur Genocides, students develop media literacy skills and think critically about the impact of the media on public opinion and policy decisions.

Survivor's Voices: Experiences of Genocide
Students watch video testimonies of genocide survivors and consider the benefits and limitations of using personal stories to learn about history.

The Options Role Play
Working cooperatively to develop and present four options for U.S. policy to a Senate committee, students are able to clarify and evaluate alternative policies.

Joining the Debate on U.S. Policy
Armed with historical knowledge and a sense of their own values, students articulate recommendations for U.S. policy and apply them to three hypothetical crises.

Building a Memorial
This hands-on and uplifting lesson challenges students to use diverse forms of expression to memorialize a genocide. Students explore the purpose of memorials and consider the idea of historical memory.