Supplemental Materials

Empire, Republic, Democracy: Turkey’s Past and Future

Empire, Republic, Democracy: Turkey’s Past and Future traces the final years of the Ottoman Empire and the history of the Turkish Republic. Students explore the legacies of Atatürk’s sweeping reforms and then grapple with the questions and challenges facing people in Turkey today.

Online Resources from the Choices Program

Videos featuring experts—professors, policymakers, journalists, activists, and artists—answering questions that complement the readings and lessons.

Graphic Organizers

Includes eight maps that are used in the readings and lessons.

Slideshow of Images
For use with the lesson “Photo Analysis: Looking at Turkey.”

Slideshow of Zeki Faik İzer’s painting On the Road to Transformation.
For use with the lesson “Art as Political Expression.”


Web Links

Al-Monitor: Turkey Pulse
International news source with contributing journalists from the Middle East.

An interactive resource produced by the Wall Street Journal with videos and articles that follow the lives of people living along the border between Turkey and Syria.

Hürriyet Daily News
A leading newspaper in Turkey.

An online magazine produced by the Arab Studies Institute. Resources include timelines, in-depth articles, and “Media Roundups” that aggregate news articles from multiple sources in Turkey and other countries.

Whose Turkey is it?
An in-depth article on the lead up to the Gezi protests and their aftermath from The New York Times Magazine.

Young People Speak Out
Young People Speak Out is an oral history project based at Sabanci University in Istanbul. In the Choices lesson, "Young People Speak Out," students read and analyze several of these personal stories. For a complete list of interviews, click on "Sitemap" in the English-language version of the website.


Findley, Carter V. Turkey, Islam, Nationalism, and Modernity—A History, 1789-2007. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.

Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü. Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Kinzer, Stephen. Crescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.

White, Jenny. Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Zürcher, Erik J. Turkey: A Modern History. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004.